The History of England

from Celts through 20th century

Health and Welfare in England

Category: Land + People

Improvements in health care are reflected by the increase in longevity for people in England. Life expectancy increased from 68 years to 71.8 years for males, and from 73.9 years to 77.7 years for females.

Heart disease and cancer are the major causes of death among men aged 50 and over and, in recent years, among women aged 40 and over. Although infectious diseases such as poliomyelitis and tuberculosis have virtually disappeared.

The National Health Service provides comprehensive medical services for every resident of England.

Doctors, dentists, opticians, and pharmacists work within the service as independent contractors.

Social services are provided through local authority social service departments.

The services are directed toward children and young people, low-income families, the unemployed, the disabled, the mentally ill, and the elderly.

Several religious organizations provide help and advice as well.

The National Insurance Scheme insures individuals against loss of income due to unemployment, maternity, and long-term illnesses.

It provides retirement pensions, widows’ and maternity benefits, child and guardian allowances, and benefits for job-related injuries or death.

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