The History of England

from Celts through 20th century

20th century

The Status and the Government of the UK

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. The monarch of the UK represents the royal power. The king or the queen of the UK is the head of the state. This monarch is also the head of the state of the fifteen other Commonwealth countries. It is a well-known fact that […]


00 Early period

Prehistoric times of the British Isles»

Britain is an island and this fact is more important than any other in understanding its history. The British Isles were the object of different foreign invasions for many times. The conquerors always had to have a dialogue with the conquered, producing sooner or later a mixed society with elements from both. The island enters […]

00 Roman Britain

The Roman Invasion»

In the middle of the first century BC Julius Caesar landed the British Isles. On the 26th of August, 55 BC some 10.000 men and 500 cavalry landed somewhere between Dover and Deal. The highly efficient Roman army had little difficulty in routing the local Celtic chieftains. Caesar carefully noted the way they fought and […]

09th century

Changes in the Administration»

By  the  beginning  of  the  9th  century  changes  had  come  about  in  Anglo-Saxon  society.  There  were  now  big  landed  estates  with  bond  peasants  working  on  them  for  the  owners.  With  the  development  of  feudal  relations  great  changes  were  taking  place  in  administration  too.  Rich  landowners  were  given  great  power  over  the  peasants.

11th century

The Norman Conquest and the Establishment of Feudalism in England»

The end of the tenth century in England is marked by the advance towards feudalism. At this period the Danish invasions were renewed under king Sweyn, who had managed to unite Denmark and Norway. The attacks against England were now organized on a very interesting commercial plan. The invaders demanded a payment of money as […]

12th century

The Economic and Social Development of the State in the 12th century»

The whole economic development of the country from the 11th to the 14th century illustrates the increasing degree of exploitation of the peasant by the feudal lords, as well as by the church. Trade was increasing throughout the country with merchants and middlemen who travelled from manor to manor and market to market. Much trading […]

13th century

13th century in England»

The main provisions of feudalism may be regarded as a contract between the king, on the one hand, and his vassals, on the other. It was recognized that the king had certain rights and duties. In the same way the vassal had his corresponding rights and duties. If the feudal contract was openly violated by […]

14th century

14th century in Britain»

In the course of the 14th century parliament took its modern shape consisting of two Houses — the House of Lords and the House of Commons. In this division the knights of the shire took their places in the House of Commons with the burgesses, whereas the lords and the top clergy sat in the […]

16th century

The Reformation. Anglo-Spanish Rivalry. Colonial Expansion»

The Wars of the Roses could not prevent the economic development of the country, where ever-growing trade and the loosening of feudal ties were rapidly bringing about the end of the feudal mode of production and the extension of the marketable goods. We have already seen that by the end of the 14th century the […]

17th century

The Economic and Social Development of the Country on the Eve of the Revolution»

The English bourgeois revolution of the 17th century ushered in a new period of world history when the capitalist mode of production triumphed and the bourgeoisie became the ruling class in capitalist society. The English revolution took place in a country where capitalism developed faster than in any other country of Europe. As a result […]

18th century

Constitutional Monarchy»

By the beginning of the 18th century the conditions were ripe in Britain for the development of capitalism. The basic production of the country was still agricultural, but manufacture especially of textiles was wide-spread and prosperous. British markets extended all over the world and all aspects of production connected with shipping and foreign trade were […]

19th century


The growing hostility of England towards the development of the revolution in France finally led to war between the two countries. In 1793 using the execution of the French king as a pretext England severed diplomatic relations with France and declared war. England together with Austria, Prussia and Spain already at war with France formed […]

Famous people

Robin Hood»

Of all the popular heroes of the English people, none has ever achieved an equal name and fame with Robin Hood. For more than six hundred years, songs and ballads of this famous outlaw have been familiar on the lips of the peasantry. Kings and princes have been forgotten, but not Robin Hood and his […]