The History of England

from Celts through 20th century

Archives for the ‘18th century’ Category

Constitutional Monarchy

Category: 18th century

By the beginning of the 18th century the conditions were ripe in Britain for the development of capitalism. The basic production of the country was still agricultural, but manufacture especially of textiles was wide-spread and prosperous. British markets extended all over the world and all aspects of production connected with shipping and foreign trade were […]

Colonial Expansion and the Formation of the Colonial Empire

Category: 18th century

The English bourgeoisie having achieved its main aim in the revolution — having secured political and economic domination in the country and consolidated its rule over the masses became deeply interested in promoting its interests abroad. The 18th century saw the actual making of the British colonial empire. This process was closely associated with the […]

The Industrial Revolution of the 18th — 19th Centuries and Its Consequences

Category: 18th century

By the mid’dle of the 18th century England becamje ripe for a turnover in industry known as the Industrial Revolution. Colonial warfare and expansion meant an accumulation of tremendous wealth in the country. For example, the profits of only the East India company immediately after the Seven Years War were 21 million pounds. Britain’s monopoly […]

The War of Independence and Its Effect on Britain

Category: 18th century

English settlements in North America emerged early in the 17th century. The first English colony, Virginia, was established in 1607, however, not until the twenties of the 17th century did these settlements form a permanent basis of the English colonies. From the very beginning there were considerable differences between the colonies in the south and […]

England and the French Bourgeois Revolution of 1789

Category: 18th century

The French monarchy in 1789 crumbled down under the blows of the revolutionary movement of the French people. The hatred against the corrupt regime found expression in the storming of the century old prison — the Bastille on July 14, 1789 which marked the beginning of the French bourgeois revolution of the eighteenth century. All […]

The National Liberation Movement in Ireland. The Act of Union (1801)

Category: 18th century

The end of the eighteenth century witnessed a new stage in the national liberation movement of the Irish people against British yoke. The successful American revolution, reinforced by the infiltration of radical ideas from France had encouraged the Irish to intensify their struggle for independence. Under the influence of the War of Independence Britain introduced […]

Science and Culture in the 18th Century

Category: 18th century

During the eighteenth century science and culture reflected the tremendous changes which took place in the economic and political life of English society. By the end of the century the most important aspects of feudalism had vanished from the English economic and social scene. Science at this period was in a favourable position and many […]

London Corresponding Society (L. C. S.)

Category: 18th century

In January 1792 the radical movement among the “low­er classes” produced its first organisation — the London Corresponding Society. Its main programme was manhood suffrage and equal representation, but in August a Public Address was issued which pointed out that an honest and genuinely representa­tive Parliament could remove the grievous oppressions of the common man: […]

Britain in the eighteenth century (summary)

Category: 18th century

Britain under George I actually had two decades of relative peace and stability. The most significant events of that period were the internal political affairs. In fact, throughout those years a smooth transition from limited monarchy to Parliamentary government took place in Great Britain. One of the important events of that time became the appointment […]

Reforms and Reformers

Category: 18th century

In the wake of the American war, many old insti­tutions were reexamined. The Economical Reform Act of 1782 reduced the patronage powers of the king and his ministers. The Irish Parliament, controlled by Anglo-Irish Protestants, won a greater degree of inde­pendence.

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