The History of England

from Celts through 20th century

Archives for the ‘17th century’ Category

The Economic and Social Development of the Country on the Eve of the Revolution

Category: 17th century

The English bourgeois revolution of the 17th century ushered in a new period of world history when the capitalist mode of production triumphed and the bourgeoisie became the ruling class in capitalist society. The English revolution took place in a country where capitalism developed faster than in any other country of Europe. As a result […]

The Restoration Period. The Compromise of 1688 and the Gradual Formation of Constitutional Monarchy

Category: 17th century

The period of 1660—88 is known as the Restoration. It is characterized by a struggle for power between the feudal aristocracy and the bourgeoisie and gentry which had secured a dominant position in society during the revolution. The feudal aristocracy was dreaming of a complete return to the pre-revolutionary days, while the bourgeoisie desperately tried […]

Cultural Developments in the 17th Century

Category: 17th century

The development of philosophy and science, and their challenge to accepted religious beliefs, is one of the most characteristic features of the 17th century. The best traditions of the 16th century were further developed in the 17th century. For instance, the philosophical work of Francis Bacon was carried still further by Thomas Hobbes (1588—1679), who […]


Category: 17th century

Elizabeth’s  “cousin  of Scotland”  was  ugly,  awkward,  and  shuffling  both  in  mind  and  person.  His  figure  presented  a  most  ridiculous  appearance,  dressed  in  thick  padded  clothes,  as  a  safe­guard  against  being  stabbed  (of  which  he  lived  in  continual  fear),  of  a  grass-  green  colour  from  head  to  foot,  with  a  hunting-horn  dangling  at  his  side  instead  […]


Category: 17th century

Charles  became  King  Charles  I  in  the  twenty-fifth  year  of  his  age.  Unlike  his  father,  he  was  usually  amiable  in  his  private  character,  and  grave  and  dignified  in  his  bearing;  but,  like  his  father,  he  had  monstrously  exaggerated  notions  of  the  rights  of  a  king,  and  was  not  to  be  trusted. First  of  all  he  […]


Category: 17th century

Before  sunset  on  the  memorable  day  on  which  King  Charles  the  First  was  executed,  the  House  of  Commons  passed  an  act  declaring  it  treason  to  proclaim  the  Prince  of  Wales  —  or  anybody  else  — King  of England.  Soon  after­wards,  it  declared  that  the  House  of  Lords  was  useless  and  dangerous,  and  ought  to  be  […]


Category: 17th century

Having  become  the  King,  Charles  II  did  much  to  those  who  seemed  to  be  his  faithful  subjects,  while  some  of  his  enemies  were  executed  in  the  most  barbarous  way.  On  the  anniversary  of  the  late  King’s  death,  the  bodies  of  Oliver  Cromwell,  Ireton,  and  Bradshaw  were  torn  out  of  their  graves  in  Westminster  Abbey,  dragged  […]


Category: 17th century

Unlike  his  brother  Charles  II,  King  James  II  was  a  very  disagreeable  man.  The  only  object  of  his  short  reign  was  to  restore  the  Catholic  religion  in England,  which  made  his  career  come  to  a  close  very  soon.  But  at  first  people  little  supposed  that  the  King  had  formed  a  secret  council  for  Catholic  affairs,  of  […]


Category: 17th century

The open struggle of the private property owner against the aggressions of the “Prince” begins inEnglandfar back in the twelfth century. The phase in this struggle that we have to study now is the phase that opened with the attempts of Henry VII and VIII, and their successors, Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth to make […]