The History of England

from Celts through 20th century


Category: Culture

All manner of general and esoteric societies, institutions, museums and foundations can be found in England.

One of its more prestigious learned societies is the Royal Society (1660), which awards fellowships, medals and endowed lectureships based on scientific and technological achievements.

The British Museum contains a wealth of archaeological and ethnographic specimens. Its extensive library — containing ancient and medieval manuscripts and papyruses — was merged in 1973 with several other holdings to form the British Library, a centralised repository.

The Zoological Society of London maintains the London Zoo and also conducts research, publishes journals, and supports a large zoological library.

The Royal Botanic Gardens are significant both as a research institute and as one of England’s many places of great natural beauty.

There are also notable university libraries at the University of Cambridge and at the University of Oxford (the Bodlerian Library).

Art galleries abound in England.

The best known are based in London and include the National Gallery, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the National Portrait Gallery, the Tate Gallery (with superb collections of John Constable and the Pre-Raphaelites, and the Wallace Collection.

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