Here you can find answers for the following questions:
18th Century Britain
The New Regime
- Why did William III have to do much to secure his hold?
- What event has been celebrated in Northern Ireland since 1690?
- What followed the new conquest of Ireland?
- Was there much opposition to the new regime in Scotland?
- What was added to the constitution after William III and Mary II had been declared King and Queen?
- What Acts were passed by Parliament?
The Great Wars of the Early 18th Century
- What brought England into wars with France?
- The political situation in the late 17th century Europe.
- What created a kind of vacuum in Europe?
- What great wars were fought in the late 17th — early 18th century? Why did they break out?
- The changes that took place in the technical character of war in the late 17th — early 18th century.
- Were there any military advantages that England possessed?
- Was the War of the League of Augsburg a decisive one in settling the European political disputes?
- What happened after the death of the King of Spain?
- What is the 1st Duke of Marlborough famous for?
- What happened in 1712?
- What were the results of the War of the Spanish Succession?
- The Treaty of Utrecht stands at the beginning of a long period of peace. How long was that period and what was characteristic of it?
The Union between England and Scotland
- Who succeeded William III?
- When was the Kingdom of Great Britain formed?
- In what way did the Union strengthen the country?
- What did the Scots part with?
- What did the Scots gain?
- Why did the elector of Hanover succeed Queen Anne?
- How many political parties were there in England during the English Civil Wars of the 17th century?
- What parties had formed by the late 17th century?
- What is the origin of the term “the Whigs”?
- What can you say about the origin of the term “the Tories”?
- What did the Whigs boast of?
- The early days of the Whig Party.
- Had the Whigs any political allies?
- Who did the Whig Party support?
- What did the Tory Party abandon in the course of William Ill’s reign?
From Limited Monarchy to Parliamentary Government
- What can you tell about the events of 1715?
- What made James Edward try his chance in 1715?
- What did the failure of the Jacobite rebellion of 1715 mean?
- A few words about Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke.
- What opportunity did the Tories loose when Queen Anne died?
- What system of government emerged in the early 18th century Britain?
- The historical role of King William III.
- Why did it become clear that the Crown must fall into dependence on Parliament?
- How many members were there in the House of Commons in 1707?
- Were the parts of the country equally represented in Parliament?
- Why is it possible to maintain that there was no universal right to vote in the country?
- What did the Commons acquire by the 18th century?
- The membership of the Commons was varied.
The Privy Council and the Cabinet
- Who did the House of Commons represent?
- Why was the monarchy limited?
- What were the functions of the Privy Council in William III’s time?
- How big was the Privy Council?
- Why did the Cabinet emerge?
- How often did the Cabinet meet?
- Were these meetings formal or informal?
- Who did the Cabinet consist of?
Robert Walpole, the First Prime Minister
- How did Robert Walpole become George I’s chief minister?
- Why was Walpole able to build up and dominate a government machine?
- In what way did Walpole prepare the meetings of the efficient Cabinet?
- When did Britain lose her advantages of being an island?
- Was King George I a gifted politician?
- Did King George II influence British policy?
- Why has Walpole been regarded as Britain’s first Prime Minister?
- Did everybody support Walpole in the House of Commons?
- Was the parliamentary opposition united?
- What political system was Walpole fostering?
The Decades of Conflict
- Why was Walpole accused of pro-French foreign policy?
- What party emerged in Parliament in the late 1730′s?
- Why did Britain declare war on Spain?
- What wars broke out in the middle of the 18th century?
- When did the Jacobites make their last major attempt to recover the British throne for the Stuart dynasty?
- Who was called the Young Pretender?
- What battle was the last one to be fought on the British soil?
Rivalry with France in India
- Why did Britain concentrate on a war upon the French colonial possessions?
- Who was the first to arrive in India, the French or the British?
- What company was established in England to take profit from India?
- Why did the Directors of the East India Company complain of their servants?
- How were the private armies of the English and French created in India?
- What did the creation of these armies result in?
- When did the British become the virtual rulers of a great part of India?
- When were the French confined to a few trading stations in India?
- In what way did the British make profit from India?
- What Act systematized the exploitation of India?
The Conquest of Canada
- Where were the main French settlements in America situated?
- Why did the fighting between the French and the British begin in America?
- What were the advantages of the French?
- Who overran Canada in 1758-1760?
- What did the British conquest of Canada also involve?
- Why did Britain prefer Canada to Guadeloupe?
- When did the British Empire attain her greatest dimensions?
Population in the 18th century
- When was the first accurate estimation of the population of England and Wales made?
- How many people lived in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland in the late 17th century?
- Where was the greatest concentration of population?
- How big was the population of London then?
- How many people in England and Wales lived in the country?
- Where did the majority of workers live?
- What were the main occupations of the population?
- Who formed the backbone of the country?
- Why did the landlords spend a great deal of time improving their estates?
- What city was the cultural centre of the country?
- What other city’s culture was comparable to that of London?
- Had Glasgow a European outlook in 1700?
- What population was Dublin reputed to have in 1700?
- What were most Englishmen?
- What crops were raised in England?
Towards the Industrial Revolution
- What were the wars of the 18th century followed by?
- What did the continuous increase of colonial wealth and trade provide?
- What stimulated the development of industry?
- Why did the wars give golden opportunities to those who had the capital or the credit to take up army contracts?
- What great changes happened in the British social structure?
- Were there many industries in 1700?
- The main areas of cloth production in Britain.
- What clothes were made in England?
- What great inventions stimulated the development of industry?
- Could machinery transform the world without a new source of power?
- What remained the principal sources of power in the early 18th century?
- When was the first steam engine built?
- What was the principal difference between Save-ry’s and Newcomen’s steam engines?
- Who made the vital advance in the construction of steam engines?
- Where were Watt’s steam engines used?
- What provinces was the 18th century England divided into?
- Some of the industrial provinces. What did they specialize in?
Improvements in Agriculture
- What invention was one of the first steps in making agriculture more productive?
- What did Jethro Tull invent?
- What crop management techniques were introduced in the early 1700′s?
- Point out some factors that benefited the livestock raising.
- What did improvements in agriculture lead to?
Enclosures of the 18th Century
- What was the difference between the enclosures of the 18th century and the earlier ones?
- Who was forced to sell out?
- What led to general consolidation of holdings?
- How many acres were enclosed in the 18th century?
- When did the enclosures reach their height?
- What attracted capitalists to invest in landed property?
- When did the first official census take place in Britain?
- How big was the population of Britain by the end of the 18th century?
- Why were the following decades marked with the rapid growth of population?
- What became the Britain’s leading export?
- When did Britain become the “workshop of the world”?
- How big was the population of London in 1801?
- What had made London the largest city in the world by 1851?
The Rise of the Middle Class
- What made the British middle class larger and more influential?
- What did the landed aristocracy firmly resist?
- What brought political influence to the middle class?
- What lifestyle had the middle class at the time of the Industrial Revolution?
- Did this lifestyle change later?
- Why did people in the middle class criticize the poor?
The State of the Poor
- What was Britain to do in order to keep production costs low?
- Why was a detailed study of the labouring classes needed?
- What vices of the poor were criticized by respectable Englishmen?
- What ways of reformation were considered?
- What was F. M. Eden’s work about?
- What did Th. Malthus publish in 1798?
- Was Malthus a philanthropist?
- What morality did he preach?
- What did social reformers want to change?
- What was Jeremy Bentham particularly interested in?
- Where could Bentham’s ideas be applied?
- What were the living conditions of the town workers?
- Why did children have to work?
- Were there any trades in which young children could make themselves useful?
- Why were sweeping boys kept half-starved?
- Where did sweepers usually get their boys?
- How many hours a day did children work?
The Early Years of King George III’s Reign
- In what quality did George III try to enter politics?
- By what means did he try to play a direct role in governing his country?
- What was the new king criticized for?
Consequences of the American Revolution
- What attempts did American colonists resent?
- When was the First Continental Congress called?
- Why was the First Continental Congress called?
- What countries were brought into the war on the American side?
- When did Britain recognize American independence?
- Why did King George HI grow very unpopular?
- What industry was severely hit by the disruption of overseas markets during the American Revolution?
- Economic changes that took place in the last decades of the 18th century.
Reforms and Reformers
- What reforms were introduced in the wake of the American War?
- Who became Prime Minister in 1783?
- How long did William Pitt the Younger remain in office?
- Did the French Revolution inspire any of the British reformers?
19th Century Britain
The Union with Ireland
- Which country was more affected by the French Revolution, England or Ireland?
- What did the United Irishmen demand?
- Who did Wolfe Tone combine against England?
- Did Tone persuade the French Directory to help the Irish in their struggle?
- The reasons that made Tone seek help in France.
- When was a state of insurrection declared in Ireland?
- What measures were taken to make the rising in Ireland ineffective?
- Why was the rebellion hopeless?
- What led to the Act of Union with Ireland?
- Why did this document cause indignation in Ireland?
The Napoleonic Wars Begin
- Did Britain always do well in the wars with the Napoleonic France?
- What battle was one of the hours of the British Navy brightest glory?
- What military successes had Napoleon achieved before he set sail from Tulon?
- Where did he sail for in the end of June 1798?
- Why was the English Mediterranean fleet watching the course of Napoleon’s great armament?
- How strong was the French fleet?
- The British and French fleets that fought in the battle of the Nile.
- Why did the French have to remain at anchor outside the harbour of Alexandria?
- Did the French expect the British attack?
- How did Nelson describe the battle of the Nile?
- What did the destruction of Napoleon’s fleet mean?
The Napoleonic Wars Go On
- When did the war with revolutionary France enter its second phase?
- How were the French armies welcomed in foreign countries?
- Why did the people of the conquered countries change their attitude to the French?
- What happened in 1802?
- When did war break out again?
- What victory saved Britain from invasion?
- What have you learned about the battle of Trafalgar?
- What countries was Napoleon finally broken upon?
- Why did that happen?
- In what way did Napoleon try to strike at Britain?
- Arthur Wellesley’s activity in the Peninsula.
- How did the French find themselves opposed to nations in arms?
- When did the allies enter Paris?
- What happened after Napoleon had been dethroned?
- What problems were discussed at the Congress of Vienna?
Britain after Waterloo
- Did the ending of the war open a vast market for British goods?
- Why did exports and imports fall in 1815?
- What causes intensified the post-war crisis?
- What prevented the rapid recovery of industry?
- Why did machine wrecking become widespread?
- Where did the Luddite riots centre?
- What meetings were held in 1819?
- Which of the meetings resulted in the “Peterloo Massacre”?
- What Acts were passed in 1819?
- Why did Radical agitation diminish?
The Reform Bill
- What led to a demand for Parliamentary Reform?
- Why was the Reform necessary?
- What did the Reform Bill regularize?
- Which part of the Bill was the most popular?
- When did the Bill pass into law?
- What consequences had the Reform Act?
The Poor Law of 1834
- Why was it necessary to amend the Poor Law?
- When was the Poor Law Amendment Act passed?
- What did the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 , state?
- What was the principle of the new Poor Law?
- Why did workhouses become homes of meanness and cruelty?
- How were the inmates of workhouses kept?
- Why did people dread workhouses?
The Corn Laws
- What was the object of the Corn Laws of 1815?
- Were the Corn Laws popular?
- Were there any attempts to improve the Corn Laws?
- What League was formed in 1838?
- What did its leader expect?
- When were the steps taken towards Free Trade?
- When were the Corn Laws repealed?
- Who worked to repeal them?
- What was the effect of the Corn Laws repeal?
- How did the manufacturers gain by repeal of the Corn Laws?
The Chartist Movement
- What was the Chartist movement?
- Who drafted the “People’s Charter”?
- What did the Chartists demand?
- How many people signed Charter petitions?
- How many Charter petitions were presented to the House of Commons?
- What brought an end to the Chartist movement?
- What did the Chartist movement symbolize?
- Why did this movement die out?
The Police Force
- When was the modern British police force founded?
- Why was it created?
- Had there been any structures to ensure social order before?
- Who got the direct control over the police?
- Who was the moving force behind the new police?
- Why were the hours of work risen in the earliest stages of the Industrial Revolution?
- What was started when the facts about factory conditions became generally known?
- What did Robert Owen show?
- Where were hours and conditions the worst?
- When did it become less economical to keep hours extremely long?
- When was the first Factory Legislation passed?
- What did the Cotton Factories Regulation Act forbid?
- Were the early Factories Regulation Acts effective?
- When was the first effective Factory Act passed?
- For who were the hours limited in 1847?
- Did the Acts of 1847 apply to all industries?
- What did the Factory Acts lead to?
Child Labour in the 19th Century
- How many children of London had any schooling in 1840?
- Have you read any books by Charles Dickens?
- Which of Dickens’s novels reflected his childish experience of work in the blacking factory?
- What employment could children between five and fifteen find?
- Who did Victoria succeed?
- When did the great Victorian epoch start?
- How old was Victoria when she ascended the throne?
- Who helped Victoria to learn the business of being a queen?
- Why did Victoria’s marriage to Prince Albert enable her to increase her influence?
- Was their marriage a happy one?
- How many children were there in their family?
- What life did Victoria live after the death of her husband?
- Speak about Victoria’s personal qualities.
The Great Exhibition
- Who got the idea to organize the Great Exhibition?
- When was the Great Exhibition held?
- Where was the Great Exhibition held?
- How many people visited the Great Exhibition?
- What building was erected to house the exhibits?
- When was the Great Exhibition opened?
- Was the opening of the Great Exhibition a spectacular ceremony?
- What was exhibited in the Crystal Palace?
- Where did exhibits come from?
- How did the visitors perceive the Great Exhibition?
- What was the expansion of British manufacture and commerce in the mid-19th century due to?
- Why did the working of the Californian and Australian goldfields increase the circulating medium of the world?
- What changes in transport took place?
- Why did the threat of foreign competition lead to improvements in technique?
- Did machinery help to increase the wheat growing land productivity?
- What stimulated the use of machinery between 1845 and 1859?
- Why did the size of farms increase?
- When did the period of prosperity in agriculture end?
The Railway Age
- Which country was the first to create a railway system?
- When was a boom time for building roads?
- Were the roads built in the 18th century good enough?
- Who devised methods of building roads on which heavy goods could be carried?
- Was water transport widely used?
- When was the first steam locomotive built?
- When was the Stockton-Darlington Railway opened?
- Why were vast amounts of capital poured into building railroads?
- Did the capital invested into building railroads bring in immediate profit?
- How did the railway building influence the development of heavy industry?
The Crimean War (1853—1856)
- What did Tzar Nicholas I wish to profit from?
- Why did the Crimean War begin?
- Why was the war supported by the British people?
- What was the effect of the war?
- Why was the war full of casualties?
- Who made public the British army’s problems?
- What did Florence Nightingale do? .
National Struggle in Ireland
- What was the Act of Union with Ireland followed by?
- What secret organizations struggled against the British rule in Ireland?
- What did Daniel O’Connell create?
- What did O’Connell achieve?
- Why was Ireland important to Great Britain?
- What is known as the Great Famine?
- The Irish saying, “Providence sent the potato plight, but England made the famine.”
- What did the Young Ireland Movement advocate?
- How was the insurrection planned by the Young Ireland Movement forestalled?
- Why did the population of Ireland fall?
- What did the Fenians struggle for?
- When was the Home Rule Party formed?
- Who was the leader of the Home Rule Party?
- Did Parnell believe in terrorism?
- Which country was the most industrialized one in the middle of the 19th century?
- What did the mid-Victorian boom give way to?
- What countries overtook Britain in the production of steel and other manufactured goods?
- What was Wilhelm II’s ambition?
- Why was Britain troubled by Wilhelm’s order to construct a modern battle fleet?
- What increased friction between Britain and Germany?
- What guaranteed British control of the oceans in wartime?
- What was France worried about?
- When did Germany become Britain’s main rival?
- Why did Britain find herself outdistanced in the end of the 19th century?
- Where did the Anglo-German rivalry centre?
- Why could the redivision of the world only be effected by war?
British Interest in Egypt and the Sudan
- Why did Egypt become especially important for Britain after 1869?
- Why did Egypt turn to London?
- Were the operations in Egypt profitable to British bankers and industrialists?
- Why did the government of Egypt sell its shares in the Suez Canal to Britain?
- What followed this bargain?
- When did Egypt take control of the Suez Canal?
- What made the Sudan especially valuable to Britain?
The Boer War
- Which event is the most characteristic one in British colonial policy in the end of the 19th century?
- How many Boer Wars were there?
- How did Britain become a ruler of the Boers?.
- Why were the Boers displeased with the British?
- What made a conflict between the Boers and the British almost inevitable?
- When did the first conflict begin?
- When did the second Boer War begin?
- Speak about the Boer War of 1899-1902.
- When did the Boers receive Dominion Home Rule?
- What was constituted in 1909?
British Colonies in West Africa
- What colonies did Britain develop in West Africa?
- Did the British try to penetrate the interior?
- Slave trade in West Africa.
- How was the foundation of the British power in West Africa laid?
- What goods were shipped from West Africa?
- Were there any plantations under direct European control in West Africa?
- What system of indirect exploitation of West African colonies was created?
The British Empire
- What was the growth of the British Empire due to?
- When were the first English trading companies set up?
- Where did they establish colonies?
- What caused the “swing to the East” in British colonial policy?
- The British colonies in America.
- What do you know about Australian colonial history?
- What factors weakefted the British Empire?
- What presaged the Empire’s dissolution?
- What happened when Britain’s hold on her colonies had loosened?
20th Century Britain
- How old was Edward VII when he ascended the throne?
- Why was Edward VII called a merry monarch?
- What country was Edwardian Britain?
- Who was Edward VII’s nephew?
- Did the king like his German nephew?
- What political alliances were formed in the first decade of the 20th century?
- What important events took place in Edwardian Britain?
- When were the foundations of the welfare state laid?
- Who laid these foundations?
- Were there any social protests in Edwardian Britain?
Britain in the World War I
- What prompted Britain to declare war on Germany?
- What made a quick German victory impossible?
- What was fighting on the Western Front like?
- For how many years were the efforts to break through the trench barrier made?
- What important battles were fought in the Western Front?
- How did the Great October Socialist Revolution influence the situation in the Western Front?
- When was the Peace Conference held?
- Where was it held?
- Was the British Empire enlarged by former German colonies?
- What organization was founded on the initiative of the American President Wilson?
Changes Brought by the War
- Was the reaction to the war the same in Great Britain and Ireland?
- What happened in Ireland in 1916?
- How did the civil war in Ireland end?
- Did all the Irish counties form the Irish Free State in 1921?
- In what way did the World War I.influence the British women?
- Who was granted the vote in 1918?
- Who was granted the vote in 1928?
- Did the post-war economic boom last long?
- Were there many unemployed in the country in the 1930′s?
The Most Royal Romance
- Who was King George V succeeded by?
- Why did Edward VIII abdicate?
- Why would the government never consent to have Mrs. Simpson as Queen?
- What did Edward VIII broadcast on the night of 11 December 1936?
The World War II Breaks Out
- What problems did Britain face in the first years of King George VI’s reign?
- What historic interview took place at Bershtesgaden?
- What was it preceded with?
- What was the result of the Munich Agreement?
- What news did Britain receive on 23 August?
- When did Britain declare war on Germany?
Britain in the World War II
- What did Germany open on 1 September 1939?
- Why was the British government getting ready for bombardment of the British territories?
- Who became the head of the war cabinet?
- What urgent measures were taken to save people?
- How was the German invasion plan foiled by the British?
- Which country had more fighters?
- Who forged the “Grand Alliance”?
- Speak about the Anglo-American campaign against Italy.
- What began on 6 June 1944?
- How is this day called?
- Why is it called so?
- When did the German government make unconditional surrender to the Allies?
- What party won the majority of vote in 1945?
- What measures did Attlee’s government take?
- Why was the war followed by an era of austerity?
- When did Britain join the NATO?
- Why did Britain join the NATO?
- Why did the Labour Party loose the general election of 1951?
- What did the early 1950′s bring?
- Did the Conservatives attempt to reverse the welfare programme after they had won the general election of 1951?
- When did Elizabeth II become Queen?
- What did Colonel Hunt do on the day of the Queen’s coronation?
- How long did the Conservatives remain the governing party?
- When did the next Labour government come into power?
- Were the 1950′s the period of economic revival?
- Were the British satisfied with their Conservative governments?
Modem Ethnic, National and Religious Problems
- Why did the people of,Great Britain stop to be purely “European”?
- Where did immigrants arrive to Britain from?
- At what rate did they arrive in the mid-1950′s?
- Why did the rapid growth of population result in serious problems?
- What problems it bring?
- Have the British already succeeded in building a multiethnic society?
- Has the Irish problem been settled?
- What is the modern state of the Irish problem?
- Is there a burning national problem in Scotland?
The Sixties and After
- What did Britain experience in 1960′s?
- What were the manifestations of the revolution in fashion?
- How did these new trends in fashion influence economy?
- What was the main goal of the Conservative government led by Heath, Wilson, and their followers?
- When did Thatcher become Prime Minister?
- How long did Thatcher remain in her office?
- Was her policy a success?
- Why was Thatcher nicknamed the “Iron Lady”?
- What did her critics accuse her of?
- Who became Prime Minister after Thatcher?